Anchoring & Mooring : BoatUS Foundation (2023)

With so much investment literally riding on your anchor, your boat's anchoring system is no place to cut corners. Your choice of anchor depends on the size and type of your boat, and the weather and anchoring conditions you generally encounter.

Boats with heavy displacements or superstructures that present a great deal of wind resistance need heavier gear. The same is true of cruising yachts that brave a wide variety of conditions and may sometimes have to anchor in open waters.

Although not required by Federal Law, it is recommended you carry one anchor of sufficient size and strength to hold your boat for an extended period, like overnight--or in an emergency situation, such as if you run out of gas. When you are thinking or buying an anchor - BIGGER IS BETTER.

Also, there is safety in numbers. No anchor will work for you in every situation, so if you have space carry two anchors--preferably of different types.Many people choose to carry a small anchor, or "lunch hook", and a larger working or storm anchor. The lunch hook is for use in calm weather and when the crew is monitoring the anchor. Working and storm anchors are useful at times when the crew is asleep or ashore, and during heavy weather, when winds are 30 miles an hour and over.

The general name for all of the equipment you need to anchor your boat is "ground tackle". This includes an anchor, chain, line and connecting elements. The anchor line, including chain, is called the rode.

Playing Hooky

Just as boats come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, so do anchors. Choosing an anchor is easy, choosing the right one for your boat can be very difficult. Your first task in choosing an anchor is to have an understanding of three things:

  1. Your Boat - Your boats' size, weight and design characteristics affect what kind of anchor you will need to use. For instance, a 30 foot 10,000 pound houseboat needs a larger anchor than a 30 foot 6000 pound speedboat.
  2. Where You're Going - Where you plan to anchor often dictates what type of anchor you should use. Is the bottom rock, or is it soft mud? If you are not familiar with the area, ask around or look at a local chart.
  3. Local Conditions - Anchoring in a calm protected cove can be quite different than anchoring offshore or on a large open bay. And don't forget the weather--high winds, tides and waves can all make anchoring difficult, if not impossible.
Anchoring & Mooring : BoatUS Foundation (1)

Anchors are rated by "holding power"--which is the ability of an anchor to hold a given weight. Keep in mind that a 10,000 pound boat may only require an anchor with a holding power of a few hundred pounds on a calm day, but may need 1,000 pounds of holding power or more on a stormy day.

Anchor Types

There are several types of anchors and you should choose a style based on the bottom characteristics in the areas you will anchor most often. Then, choose a size based on the size and weight of your boat.

Lightweight or "Danforth" Anchors

Anchoring & Mooring : BoatUS Foundation (2)

Lightweight type anchor with two long pivoting "flukes"; designed to reduce clogging with mud and grass; range from 2.5 pounds to nearly 200 pounds, and are generally made of cast galvanized metal, though some models are machined from a light-weight aluminum composite. When dropped, flukes dig the anchor into the bottom and the anchor buries itself and part of the anchor line.

(Video) Boat Anchoring Made Simple [REALLY!] | BoatUS

Commonly used on small recreational boats, as they are relatively light weight for the amount of holding power they provide, especially in comparison to other anchors. Best in hard sand or mud, where flukes can easily dig into the bottom.

Not recommended for very soft or loose mud, which can ball up around the flukes; or on rocky bottoms where the flukes cannot penetrate. Also not recommended for grassy bottoms, which the flukes tend to slip off.

Kedge or Navy Anchors

Anchoring & Mooring : BoatUS Foundation (3)

A more traditional style anchor with arks, flukes and stock. Good in heavy grass, weeds, rocky bottoms or hard sand where one arm can penetrate a crevice. Not good in mud or loose sand, where flukes can't dig in.

Functions differently than previous anchors as it is not a burying anchor; one arm digs into bottom and one lies exposed. Generally only used by very large ships, as it relies on weight for most of the holding power; not really suitable for recreational use other than for a lunch hook.

Grapnels Anchors

Anchoring & Mooring : BoatUS Foundation (4)

Very inexpensive, but not much holding power. Some models are made of bent re-bar, others are made of galvanized metal and have folding flukes. Good for recovering items on the bottom, or for wreck reef anchoring. Commonly used on very small boats such as canoes or jon boats.

Plow or "CQR/DELTA" Anchors

Anchoring & Mooring : BoatUS Foundation (5)

The plow styles' good holding power over a wide variety of bottom types makes it a top choice of cruising boaters. Has either a fixed (Delta style) or a pivoting (CQR) shank.

When dropped in the water, a plow lands on its side, then when pulled, buries itself. Its shape allows it to reset fairly easily should the wind or tide shift the boat position.

Great in sand and on rocky bottoms, weeds and grass. Does not do well in soft bottoms. Generally made of galvanized metal, though they are available in stainless steel.

(Video) ⚓️ Add Anchor Chain for Better Holding + Seizing or Mousing the Shackle | BoatUS

Claw or "BRUCE" Anchors

Anchoring & Mooring : BoatUS Foundation (6)

Unique shape of the claw allows a 360 degree turn without breaking out. Has similar performance to plow anchors,at a lower weight.

Sets just like a plow, but curved flukes make it easier for a claw to right itself no matter how it lands on the bottom, or how much the boat gets swung around.

Mushroom Anchors

Anchoring & Mooring : BoatUS Foundation (7)

Mushroom anchors get their name from, as you might imagine, their rounded, mushroom shape. Mushroom anchors are used extensively for moorings, and can weigh several thousand pounds for this use.

The shape works best in soft bottoms, where it can create a suction that can be difficult to break. Decent for very small boats to use as a lunch hook, but not practical for larger boats. Both Buoys and Beacons may have lights attached, and may have a sound making device such as a gong, bell or horn. Both Buoys and Beacons may be called "marks".

Line and Gear

Depending upon the size and type of your boat, and where you anchor--your choices for an anchor line are either an all-rope anchor rode, a combination of rope and chain, or all chain.

Nylon Line in Three-Strand Twist

Anchoring & Mooring : BoatUS Foundation (8)

Three-strand line can absorb shock and the constant tugging associated with anchoring much better than braided line or chain alone. Chain may also be used, especially in anchorages that are primarily rock or coral, which may cut a nylon line. A length of chain should be used between the anchor and a longer length of line. The chain will add weight to set your anchor without making it too heavy to lift manually, while serving to exert a horizontal pull on the anchor to set it.

Nylon Three-Strand line is the leading choice for use as an anchoring line. Lines generally come in a "soft" or "medium" lie. Soft lines are generally softer to the touch, and loosely woven. These aren't as good as medium or hard lines for anchoring, as they are more prone to unraveling and chafing. Tightly wrapped lines are the best choice for anchoring.

Lines that have been treated with a wax-like coating are available. These lines help the line resist water/salt absorption. To help keep your lines in good shape, clean them from time to time by soaking them in soapy water. Never use bleach, as it can break down the line.

(Video) Boating Tips & Tricks - Anchor Snubber


Anchoring & Mooring : BoatUS Foundation (9)

Chain may be used instead of nylon line for anchoring. Chain has several benefits, including added weight, chafe and wear resistance, and high strength. It also lowers the angle of pull on the anchor, which helps it to set more firn\mly into the bottom.

Chain is generally found made of galvanized steel, though you can find stainless steel and vinyl coated chain, which is designed to be non-marring to your deck.

Chain comes in three general varieties: "Proof Coil" is the most common, and is adequate for most marine uses. "BBB" ("Triple B" or "3B") chain has thicker, shorter links than proof chain. BBB is slightly stronger than proof chain, and is generally used for windlasses. Finally, "Hi-Test" chain is made of hardened steel, and is stronger and lighter than proof coil. Hi-test chain is favored by those wishing to avoid carrying too much weight.

Nylon Line in Three-Strand Twist

Anchoring & Mooring : BoatUS Foundation (10)

Combination anchor-rodes consist of both chain and nylon line. You may buy a combination rode, or you may make one yourself. Generally, it is recommended to have either one foot of chain for each foot of boat length, or to have one pound of chain for each pound of anchor length. Which ever method you choose, having more chain than necessary is never a bad idea.

Anchoring & Mooring : BoatUS Foundation (11)

As the saying goes, a chain is only as strong as its' weakest link...Make sure that your anchor and line are attached to each other with adequate gear. Some lines come with plastic thimbles or eyes--but metal, either marine-grade stainless steel or hot-dipped galvanized steel, is best. Swivels and shackles should be inspected regularly for wear, and to ensure that the connections are tight and functional.


Scope: Length of the anchor line/ height of the deck cleat to the sea bed.

Before leaving the dock, you will need to determine how much anchor line, or "rode", you will need. It is recommended that you use a scope of 7:1, meaning that for every foot of water depth, you should use 7 feet of rode.

Anchoring & Mooring : BoatUS Foundation (12)

For example, to anchor in 10 feet of water, you would pay out 70 feet of line. Measure the scope as the ratio of the length of the anchor rode to the height of the bow above the bottom. If you're using a lightweight anchor on a small boat in good weather conditions, a shorter scope of 5:1 is sufficient and safe. A prudent boater always has extra line and chain on hand, just in case.

(Video) Beaching Your Boat So You Can Leave Again | BoatUS

Minimum Working Rode Sizes

Anchoring & Mooring : BoatUS Foundation (13)

Suggested holding sizes assume fair holding ground, scope of at least 5:1 to 10:1, and moderate shelter from high seas.

Boats that operate generally in shallow waters, as on the East Coast of the United States, may get by with shorter rode lengths. As the wind picks up, deploying additional line will help maintain position, as will tossing out an extra anchor.

Setting Anchor

Anchoring can be accomplished quickly and easily by following a few simple steps.

  • Check your chart for bottom characteristics and to determine that you are anchoring in a safe and allowable place. If there are rocks, shoals, reefs or other boats to consider, give them all as wide a berth as possible. Remember that other boats will often have different requirements for anchor rode length--larger or taller boats frequently need a great deal of rode. Also, keep in mind a possible swing of 360 degrees about the anchor with wind shifts or current changes.
  • If your crew is not already wearing PFDs, have them put one on before going forward to set or retrieve an anchor or mooring.
  • Secure the bitter end of the anchor line to a bow cleat. Make sure the line is ready to run free once tossed overboard.
  • Head into the wind or current. Reduce speed and reverse the engine. When the boat starts to make a slight sternway through the water, lower - do not throw - the anchor.
  • After you've let about a third of your line out, tug the anchor line to see how firmly it's set, and then continue to release the rode.
  • Once you let out an appropriate amount of scope, make sure the line is properly tied off on the bow cleat.
  • Even if anchoring only in designated anchoring areas, it is always prudent to have the appropriate signal such as an all-around white light on to notify other boats that you are anchored at night. During the day you must display a ball shape which is sized according to the size of your boat.

Staying Put

It's a good idea to take two immediate bearings. Select two items, one off each beam, that form a natural range and watch for any changes in their relationship. You can check these later to determine if you're boat is swinging as expected or if you're dragging anchor.

Picking Up a Mooring

One of the best ways to avoid the hassles of anchoring is to chose a cove or harbor with moorings available for your use. Mooring balls are identified by their white spherical or can shape, and having a blue horizontal band. It may have a number designation, a VHF contact # or name on it. You will typically have to pay a small fee to the harbor master to use a public mooring, but you can count on it being far cheaper than paying for dockage for the night.

Public moorings are professionally maintained and will use a large anchor or helix screw fixture to maintain position. The harbor master will let you know if the weight or length of your boat is too big for that particular mooring. Although moorings are typically more secure than anchors, moorings can and do periodically give way. For this reason, and for the obvious courtesy reasons, you should never pick up and use a mooring that does not belong to you.

Lines that have been treated with a wax-like coating are available. These lines help the line resist water/salt absorption. To help keep your lines in good shape, clean them from time to time by soaking them in soapy water. Never use bleach, as it can break down the line.


Common Anchoring Mistakes

  • Letting the anchor go with out securing the line to the boat.
  • Letting the anchor go with your foot wrapped in the anchor line.
  • Poor communication between the captain and person on the foredeck.
(Video) Avoid the Biggest Boat Anchoring Problem | BoatUS

Picking Up a Mooring

  • Approach a mooring from downwind. This will give you better maneuverability as you go to secure your boat to the ball.
  • Go slow, so as not to disturb those already moored.
  • After putting on PFDs, send a crew member to the bow with a boat hook to grab the eye or the base of the mooring ball.
  • Once the mooring ball is at the bow--slow, stop or gently reverse engines to halt forward motion. Use your crew to relay distance information if it is difficult for the skipper to see where the mooring ball is in relation to the boat.
  • Loop the mooring line over one or both of your bow cleats. Pay attention to the possibility of chafing. You may want to use your own line to attach to the mooring ball if the one provided is dirty.
  • Some moorings may have an antenna like device called 'whip.' This is simply an extension of the ball so you don't have to reach as far to haul in the mooring line.
  • Once secure, let the boat drift back and be sure that you are clear of those who have moored or anchored around you. There is no need to 'back down' on a mooring ball.
  • Leaving a mooring is easy--just motor or pull up gently to the ball and release the mooring line from your boat. You can then either drift back or maneuver forward to clear yourself of the ball and the associated ground tackle.

Finally, never ever anchor a small boat by the stern! Your engine, and the bulk of the boat's weight rest here. Stern anchoring is likely to result in swamping and flooding.


What is the proper technique for anchoring Boatus? ›

Head into the wind or current. Reduce speed and reverse the engine. When the boat starts to make a slight sternway through the water, lower - do not throw - the anchor. After you've let about a third of your line out, tug the anchor line to see how firmly it's set, and then continue to release the rode.

What's the difference between mooring and anchoring a boat? ›

Moorings and anchors are used to secure a vessel in a particular location. A mooring is something you can tie your vessel to. It may be a buoy, a marina berth pontoon or jetty. An anchorage is a place where you can stop and secure your vessel using its anchor.

What is the formula for anchoring a boat? ›

We generally recommend a scope ratio of 5:1 minimum, but ideally 7:1 or even more (especially if anchoring overnight), i.e. let out 7 feet of rode for every 1 foot of water depth you're anchoring in, so if you are anchoring in 10 feet of water, you'll let out 70 feet of rode.

How do you anchor a mooring? ›

Approach slowly from down wind or down current, so that the floating yellow pick-up line is closest to you. Keep the buoy on the same side as the helm station so you can see it as you approach. Safely retrieve the yellow pick-up line with a boat hook. Put your vessel in neutral to avoid entanglement.

Do you anchor the front or back of a boat? ›

You should never drop your anchor from the stern of your boat. The stern, as you may already know, is the back of the boat. As the back of the boat sits lower into the water, adding the weight from the anchor could cause major issues.

What are the 3 methods of mooring? ›

Types of mooring methods

There are three alternatives: stern-to, bow-to and side-on mooring. Each of them has its pros and cons that every boat owner should consider when mooring both as regards the ease of boarding and the difficulties due to maneuvers.

Can you anchor in a mooring area? ›

Yes, most of the time, especially out of season, you can find among the moorings a patch of ground large enough to anchor — although in most circumstances anchoring in mooring fields is rarely allowed.

What does boat mooring mean? ›

A mooring is a fixed structure that you can secure your vessel to, such as a buoy or a wharf. Jetties, quays, and piers are also included in this category. The ropes, chains, or anchors you use are also considered moorings.

What are the four keys to anchoring? ›

So the five keys to successful anchoring are Intensity, Timing, Uniqueness, Replicability, and Number of times.

What are the 5 types of anchoring? ›

The common type of anchors used in such permanent deployment situations is the mushroom, auger, high-holding, and deadweight methods.
  • Mushroom Permanent Anchors. ...
  • Auger Permanent Anchors. ...
  • High Holding Permanent Anchors. ...
  • Deadweight Permanent Anchors. ...
  • Northill Temporary Anchor. ...
  • Grapnel Temporary Anchor.
Mar 10, 2020

What are the three boat rules? ›

Always operate your boat at a safe and controlled speed. Be sure to follow rules of “no wake” or “slow” water zones. Never operate your boat recklessly, such as under the influence of alcohol or drugs, or speeding. Do not navigate close to naval vessels, and other restricted areas such as bridges and power plants.

What is the most common mooring anchor? ›

Mushroom Anchor: the most common type of mooring anchor is the mushroom, which, under ideal conditions, with the right kind of bottom, can dig in, create suction and develop good holding power.

What is the best anchor for a mooring boat? ›

The Delta is arguably the most popular anchor on boats today, and is the standard anchor of choice used by most boat manufacturers. It has a good holding power per pound (about 50% more than the Bruce). Both the Delta and the CQR perform well in most bottoms, struggling the most in rock.

What is a proper procedure of mooring? ›

The berthing position is approached at a 90-degree angle. The starboard anchor is released at a determined location as the ship moves forward. When the ship stops, the port-side anchor is released, thereby positioning the poop along the central line bifurcating the buoys.

What is the rule of thumb for anchoring? ›

As a general rule of thumb, your rode should be 7 to 10 times the depth of the water in which you will anchor.

Why do boats have 2 anchors? ›

Using a second boat anchor can help limit swing in variable conditions. Shifting winds and changing tides can move an anchored boat all over the place. One way to limit this swing is to set a second anchor. The classic two-anchor scenario is the Bahamian Moor.

What are the 4 points of mooring system? ›

The Four-Point Mooring System consists of components and hardware necessary to assemble four identical mooring legs. Each leg consists of an anchor, anchor chain, wire ropes, mooring buoy, crown buoy, and rigging hardware.

What are the 4 common types of mooring arrangement onboard ship? ›

Some common mooring methods used for ships are Mediterranean mooring, Baltic mooring, Running mooring, Standing mooring, Spider mooring buoys, Single-point or single buoy mooring, Conventional or multi buoy mooring, Ship to Ship Mooring.

What are the 6 steps of safe mooring operations? ›

6 tips for safe mooring operations
  • #1 Use Appropriate Lines. a. ...
  • #2 Set an inspection system. Ensuring the ideal mooring operation, it is important to follow the steps below: ...
  • #3 Plan operation. ...
  • #4 Toolbox meeting. ...
  • #5 Execute operation. ...
  • #6 Post operation activities.
Dec 13, 2019

Can I just moor my boat anywhere? ›

Despite what you see in the movies, you can't moor or drop anchor just anywhere. Most cities and states have mooring restrictions or location requirements. Furthermore, there are some spots where it just isn't safe to leave your boat parked for very long.

Can you live on a boat on a mooring? ›

Alternatively, you can keep your vessel in a marina or mooring field. These options are paid for and often require a permit. It's not easy to store a boat in the water and live on it. Even if you do manage to secure a permit, electing the slip or mooring ball as your domicile or residence can be challenging.

What should be avoided when anchoring? ›

Never tie the line to the stern: the additional weight could bring on water. Slowly lower the anchor from the bow, rather than the stern, to avoid capsizing or swamping. When the anchor has hit bottom—and sufficient rode is given out—give a solid pull to set the anchor. Secure and adjust the line.

What does mooring mean? ›

noun. moor·​ing ˈmu̇r-iŋ Synonyms of mooring. : an act of making fast a boat or aircraft with lines or anchors. : a place where or an object to which something (such as a craft) can be moored.

How do I secure my boat to a mooring? ›

How to Tie Up a Boat: Mooring Guide
  1. Plan your approach—consider wind direction and currents.
  2. Always start by tossing a spring line to someone on the dock.
  3. Secure a line from the bow cleat to a dock cleat forward of the boat.
  4. Secure the spring line to a dock cleat angled aft.

What is mooring responsibility? ›

Mooring is the responsibility of the ship and should be under the control of the ship's crew under the supervision of the ship's officers. As stated by the court in Trade Banner, supra, “parting of the lines provided by the ship and set out by its crew cannot be blamed on the wharfinger.

What is the anchor rule? ›

The new entry—Rule 14-1b — prohibits strokes made with the club or a hand gripping the club held directly against the player's body or with a forearm held against the body to establish an anchor point that indirectly anchors the club. Penalty.

What are the 2 methods in anchoring? ›

Various anchorage methods include wind direction and strength, current and tidal current. Often a good knowledge of local conditions helps the seafarer to determine the necessary maneuvers and actions to be taken when anchored.

What are the general rules of anchoring? ›

An anchor has to grab the bottom, dig in, and set to really hold, which usually entails letting out enough scope (5-to-1 rode to depth, measured from your anchor roller to the bottom), backing down on it slowly until it hooks the bottom, and then more strongly to dig its flukes in until it's clear the boat will remain ...

What is the key to good anchoring? ›

Using a combination of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic signals, such as a special look with some words and a unique tap or touch is recommended. Always repeat the anchor in exactly the same way. If you use another trigger (even something that is similar but not exactly the same), the anchor will not work.

What is the best anchoring line? ›

For most docking and anchor lines, standard nylon is a good choice. It has great strength, "gives" under load to absorb energy, and is relatively inexpensive. It's also easy to handle and resists the harmful effects of sunlight better than other synthetics. It's the rope of choice for anchoring rode.

What size anchor for a 23 foot boat? ›

- 14 lb anchor - for boats 20-27 ft in winds up to 30 mph. Typically boats in this size range have larger compartments, however the anchor lockers can still be narrow. You can also choose the folding rollbar model. - 18 lb anchor - for boats 28-34 ft in winds up to 30 mph.

What is Rule 14 in boating? ›

SECTION B GENERAL LIMITATIONS 14 AVOIDING CONTACT A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible.

Why do boats honk 3 times? ›

Three short blasts tell other boaters, “I am operating astern propulsion.” For some vessels, this tells other boaters, “I am backing up.”

What is Rule 5 of boating? ›

The Lookout Rule (or Navigation Rule 5) requires that all vessels at all times maintain a proper lookout by sight and hearing so that the operator can fully appraise the situation and the risk of collision.

What is the proper technique for anchoring stern? ›

Drop the stern anchor behind the boat on either the port or starboard side. You'll want to angle your boat at 15 degrees off the windward swell (on a diagonal). Drop the stern anchor from the dinghy with a scope of minimum 5:1. This means you'll want to anchor at 5 feet for every 1 foot of water depth.

What is the proper technique for anchoring quizlet? ›

What is the proper technique for anchoring? From the bow.

What are the rules for anchoring? ›

An anchor has to grab the bottom, dig in, and set to really hold, which usually entails letting out enough scope (5-to-1 rode to depth, measured from your anchor roller to the bottom), backing down on it slowly until it hooks the bottom, and then more strongly to dig its flukes in until it's clear the boat will remain ...

What are the 5 keys to anchoring? ›

So the five keys to successful anchoring are Intensity, Timing, Uniqueness, Replicability, and Number of times.

What are the 5 anchor principles? ›

anchor principles

What is the story? What does the story mean? What needs to happen? How will we know we are making progress?

What are the four steps to anchoring? ›

The Four Steps to Anchoring:
  • Have the person recall a past vivid experience.
  • Provide a specific stimulus at the peak (see chart below)
  • Change the person's state.
  • Set off the anchor to test.

What are the three main working principles for anchors? ›

There are six basic principles by which an anchor develops its holding power in concrete: friction, keying, threading, adhesion, welding to rebar, and embedding in concrete.

What is the most important thing to check before anchoring? ›

The most critical factor while approaching anchoring position is the speed of the vessel. Engines must be ready and tested well in advance and the speed of the vessel should be under control. If Master feels the ship's speed is much more than what it should be, he should exercise zig-zag maneuver to reduce the speed.

What is the most important factors to determine before anchoring? ›

Along with evaluating the nature of the seabed when anchoring, these are the elements to be considered: direction and strength of wind and current, sea condition, shallow water, prohibited areas, navigational aids and facilities, underwater cables and pipelines, swinging room, other anchoring vessels in the vicinity.

Can I moor my boat anywhere? ›

Lock landings: It is important that you do not moor your boat within a lock landing, which is the designated area where boats will wait before using the lock itself. There is normally clear signage, but to be certain do not moor your boat near any sort of lock.

Which of the following must you do when anchoring? ›

Here's what you need to know:
  • Take full stock. Keep track of the tide, wind, traffic, and changing conditions. ...
  • Post someone on watch. Supervision is necessary because, even with an anchor, the conditions can and will change.
  • Check in regularly. ...
  • Keep your lights on. ...
  • Know the rules.


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